Volume 16, Issue 1 (Jan-Feb 2022)                   mljgoums 2022, 16(1): 25-31 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

badeli Z, Haghkhah M, Ghaemi E A. Phytochemical Analysis of Garlic Hydro-alcoholic Extract and Evaluation of its Anti-bacterial Effect on Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in Vitro and ex Vivo. mljgoums 2022; 16 (1) :25-31
URL: http://mlj.goums.ac.ir/article-1-1378-en.html
1- Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
2- Laboratory Sciences Research Center, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, Iran , eghaemi@yahoo.com
Abstract:   (1727 Views)
Background and objectives: Garlic is a medicinal plant with various health promoting properties including antimicrobial effects. In this study, we investigated in vitro antibacterial effects of garlic hydro-alcoholic extract against enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC).
Methods: Garlic hydro-alcoholic extract was prepared by maceration method.  Phytochemical analysis of the extract was carried out using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extract against EHEC was determined by micro-dilution assay. Cytotoxic effect of the garlic extract on human colon adenocarcinoma cell line (SW480) was assessed using MTT assay. Micro-dilution assay was also used to determine the MIC of the extract against EHEC when co-cultured with SW480 cells.
Results: The amount of organosulfur in garlic extract was 70.91% and the most common organosulfur compounds were trisulfide, di-2-propenyl (34.8%) and diallyl disulfide (14.83%). The MIC of garlic hydro-alcoholic extract on EHEC alone and when co-cultured with SW480 was 12.5 mg/ml. Concentrations of 12.5 mg/ml and 25 mg/ml of the extract significantly reduced the viability of SW480 cells compared to control and concentration of 6.25 mg/ml of garlic extract (p <0.0001).
Conclusion: The garlic hydro-alcoholic extract has inhibitory effects on EHEC in vitro. Therefore, it can be considered a suitable candidate for controlling infections caused by EHEC.
Full-Text [PDF 906 kb]   (513 Downloads) |   |   Full-Text (HTML)  (1365 Views)  
Research Article: Research Article | Subject: Microbiology
Received: 2021/04/6 | Accepted: 2021/05/22 | Published: 2021/12/29 | ePublished: 2021/12/29

1. Kuo C-J, Wang S-T, Chen C-S. Detection of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia Coli Colonization in Murine Host by Non-invasive In Vivo Bioluminescence System. JoVE (Journal of Visualized Experiments). 2018; 134: e56169. [View at Publisher] [DOI:10.3791/56169] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
2. Kaper JB, Sperandio V. Bacterial cell-to-cell signaling in the gastrointestinal tract. Infection and immunity. 2005; 73(6): 3197-209. [View at Publisher] [DOI:10.1128/IAI.73.6.3197-3209.2005] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
3. Walters M, Sperandio V. Quorum sensing in Escherichia coli and Salmonella. International Journal of Medical Microbiology. 2006; 296(2-3): 125-31. [View at Publisher] [DOI:10.1016/j.ijmm.2006.01.041] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
4. Tovaglieri A, Sontheimer-Phelps A, Geirnaert A, Prantil-Baun R, Camacho DM, Chou DB, et al. Species-specific enhancement of enterohemorrhagic E. coli pathogenesis mediated by microbiome metabolites. Microbiome. 2019; 7(1): 1-21. [View at Publisher] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
5. Harkins V, McAllister D, Reynolds B. Shiga-Toxin E. coli Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome: Review of Management and Long-term Outcome. Current Pediatrics Reports. 2020:1-10. [View at Publisher] [DOI:10.1007/s40124-020-00208-7] [Google Scholar]
6. Itelima JU, Agina SE, Pandukur SG. Antimicrobial activity of selected plant species and antibiotic drugs against Escherichia coli O157:H7. African Journal of Microbiology Research. 2017; 11(20): 792-803. [View at Publisher] [DOI:10.5897/AJMR2017.8440] [Google Scholar]
7. Berahou A, Auhmani A, Fdil N, Benharref A, Jana M, Gadhi C. Antibacterial activity of Quercus ilex bark's extracts. Journal of ethnopharmacology. 2007;112(3):426-9. [View at Publisher] [DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2007.03.032] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
8. Akintobi O, Onoh C, Ogele J, Idowu A, Ojo O, Okonko I. Antimicrobial activity of Zingiber officinale (ginger) extract against some selected pathogenic bacteria. Nature and science. 2013;11(1):7-15. [View at Publisher] [Google Scholar]
9. Bhatwalkar SB, Mondal R, Krishna SBN, Adam JK, Govender P, Anupam R. Antibacterial Properties of Organosulfur Compounds of Garlic (Allium sativum). Frontiers in Microbiology. 2021; 12. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
10. Daniel CK. The effect of garlic extracts on the control of postharvest pathogens and postharvest decay of apples. Thesis (MSc). Stellenbosch University. 2014. [View at Publisher]
11. Njue L, Kanja L, Ombui J, Nduhiu J, Obiero D. Efficacy of antimicrobial activity of garlic extracts on bacterial pathogens commonly found to contaminate meat. East African medical journal. 2014;91(12):442-8. [View at Publisher] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
12. Belguith H, Kthiri F, Chati A, Abu Sofah A, Ben Hamida J, Ladoulsi A. Inhibitory effect of aqueous garlic extract (Allium sativum) on some isolated Salmonella serovars. Afr J Microbiol Res. 2010; 4(5): 328-38. [View at Publisher] [Google Scholar]
13. Reiter J, Hübbers AM, Albrecht F, Leichert LIO, Slusarenko AJ. Allicin, a natural antimicrobial defence substance from garlic, inhibits DNA gyrase activity in bacteria. International Journal of Medical Microbiology. 2020;310(1):151359. [View at Publisher] [DOI:10.1016/j.ijmm.2019.151359] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
14. Pure AE, Mofidi SMG, Keyghobadi F, Pure ME. Chemical composition of garlic fermented in red grape vinegar and kombucha. Journal of Functional Foods. 2017; 34: 347-55. [View at Publisher] [DOI:10.1016/j.jff.2017.05.018] [Google Scholar]
15. Mataraci E, Dosler S. In vitro activities of antibiotics and antimicrobial cationic peptides alone and in combination against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy. 2012; 56(12): 6366-6371. [View at Publisher] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
16. Ismail S, Jalilian FA, Talebpour AH, Zargar M, Shameli K, Sekawi Z, et al. Chemical composition and antibacterial and cytotoxic activities of Allium hirtifolium Boiss. BioMed research international. 2013;2013. [View at Publisher] [DOI:10.1155/2013/696835] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
17. Jasamai M, Hui CS, Azmi N, Kumolosasi E. Effect of Allium sativum (garlic) methanol extract on viability and apoptosis of human leukemic cell lines. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2016;15(7):1479-85. [View at Publisher] [DOI:10.4314/tjpr.v15i7.18] [Google Scholar]
18. Vijayakumar S, Malaikozhundan B, Saravanakumar K, Durán-Lara EF, Wang M-H, Vaseeharan BJJoP, et al. Garlic clove extract assisted silver nanoparticle-Antibacterial, antibiofilm, antihelminthic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer and ecotoxicity assessment. 2019;198:111558. [View at Publisher] [DOI:10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2019.111558] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
19. Amalaradjou MAR, Narayanan A, Venkitanarayanan KJTJou. Trans-cinnamaldehyde decreases attachment and invasion of uropathogenic Escherichia coli in urinary tract epithelial cells by modulating virulence gene expression. 2011;185(4):1526-31. [View at Publisher] [DOI:10.1016/j.juro.2010.11.078] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
20. DeliveReD G. ATCC® Animal cell culture guide. 2012. https://www.atcc.org/resources/culture-guides. [View at Publisher] [Google Scholar]
21. Ilić D, Nikolić V, Ćirić A, Soković M, Stanojković T, Kundaković T, et al. Cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity of allicin and its transformation products. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 2012;6(1):59-65. [View at Publisher] [DOI:10.5897/JMPR11.917] [Google Scholar]
22. Yu TH, Wu CM, Liou YC. Volatile compounds from garlic. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 1989;37(3):725-30. [View at Publisher] [DOI:10.1021/jf00087a032] [Google Scholar]
23. Park N, Lee S, Boby N, Park S. GC/MS analysis, antimicrobial and Antioxidant Effect of Ethanol Garlic Extract. International Journal of Phytomedicine. 2017;9:324-31. [View at Publisher] [DOI:10.5138/09750185.2087]
24. Kim SH, Jung EY, Kang DH, Chang UJ, Hong Y-H, Suh HJ. Physical stability, antioxidative properties, and photoprotective effects of a functionalized formulation containing black garlic extract. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology. 2012;117:104-10. [View at Publisher] [DOI:10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2012.08.013] [Google Scholar]
25. Tijjani A, Musa, D.D., Aliyu, Y. Antibacterial activity of Garlic (ALLIUM SATIVUM) on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. International Journal of Current Science and Studies (IJCSS). 2017;1(1).
26. Lee S-Y, Nam S-H, Lee H-J, Son S-E, Lee H-J. Antibacterial activity of aqueous garlic extract against Escherichia coli O157: H7, Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus. Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety. 2015; 30(2): 210-6. [View at Publisher] [DOI:10.13103/JFHS.2015.30.2.210] [Google Scholar]
27. Petrovic V, Nepal A, Olaisen C, Bachke S, Hira J, Søgaard CK, et al. Anti-cancer potential of homemade fresh garlic extract is related to increased endoplasmic reticulum stress. Nutrients. 2018;10(4): 450. [View at Publisher] [DOI:10.3390/nu10040450] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
28. Gruhlke MC, Nicco C, Batteux F, Slusarenko AJ. The effects of allicin, a reactive sulfur species from garlic, on a selection of mammalian cell lines. Antioxidants. 2017; 6(1): 1. [View at Publisher] [DOI:10.3390/antiox6010001] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
29. Li Z, Le W, Cui Z. A novel therapeutic anticancer property of raw garlic extract via injection but not ingestion. Cell death discovery. 2018;4(1):1-10. [View at Publisher] [DOI:10.1038/s41420-018-0122-x] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
30. Arunkumar A, Vijayababu MR, Srinivasan N, Aruldhas MM, Arunakaran J. Garlic compound, diallyl disulfide induces cell cycle arrest in prostate cancer cell line PC-3. Molecular and cellular biochemistry. 2006;288(1-2):107-13. [View at Publisher] [DOI:10.1007/s11010-006-9126-6] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2007 All Rights Reserved | Medical Laboratory Journal

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.