Volume 17, Issue 2 (Mar-Apr 2023)                   mljgoums 2023, 17(2): 33-38 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Rafiee M, Tabarraei A, Yazdi M, Mohebbi A, Ghaemi E A. Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns of Staphylococcus saprophyticus Isolates Causing Urinary Tract Infections in Gorgan, North of Iran. mljgoums 2023; 17 (2) :33-38
URL: http://mlj.goums.ac.ir/article-1-1553-en.html
1- Department of Microbiology, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, Iran
2- Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Isfahan, Iran
3- Department of Microbiology, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, Iran , eghaemi@yahoo.com
Abstract:   (2091 Views)
Background and objectives: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections. Staphylococcus saprophyticus is a common Gram-positive bacterium that causes uncomplicated UTIs in women. The present study aimed to study the drug resistance pattern and phenotypic and genotypic variation of S. saprophyticus isolates from women with UTI in Gorgan, northern Iran.
Methods: This study was performed from May 2018 to September 2020. During this time,   35 S. saprophyticus strains were isolated from patients with UTI. The antimicrobial patterns of the isolates were determined by a conventional method. Phenotypic criteria such as pigment production, mannitol fermentation, urease production, and 16SrRNA gene valuation were studied.
Results: All isolates were sensitive to nitrofurantoin, gentamicin, and linezolid. S. saprophyticus isolates showed the highest level of resistance to penicillin (85.7%) and erythromycin (51.4%). A variation was detected among S. saprophyticus isolates in terms of pigment production i.e. about 51.4% showed yellow pigment in Muller Hinton agar, and 62.9% of the isolates were able to ferment mannitol sugar. Of 11 isolates that were sequenced for the 16SrRNA gene, only two isolates showed different patterns.
Conclusion: Nitrofurantoin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole are the antibiotics of choice for the treatment of UTI caused by S. saprophyticus in the study area. Due to the phenotypic and genotypic differences among S. saprophyticus isolates, typing of S. saprophyticus at the subspecies level is recommended.
Full-Text [PDF 550 kb]   (504 Downloads) |   |   Full-Text (HTML)  (1327 Views)  
Research Article: Research Article | Subject: bacteriology
Received: 2022/07/20 | Accepted: 2022/10/10 | Published: 2023/03/14 | ePublished: 2023/03/14

References
1. Wong CKM, Kung K, Au-Doung PLW, Ip M, Lee N, Fung A, et al. Antibiotic resistance rates and physician antibiotic prescription patterns of uncomplicated urinary tract infections in southern Chinese primary care. PloS one. 2017;12(5):e0177266. [View at Publisher] [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0177266] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
2. Kline KA, Lewis AL. Gram-positive uropathogens, polymicrobial urinary tract infection, and the emerging microbiota of the urinary tract. Microbiology spectrum. 2016; 4(2): 4.2. 04. [View at Publisher] [DOI:10.1128/microbiolspec.UTI-0012-2012] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
3. Jhora ST, Paul S. Urinary Tract Infections Caused by Staphylococcus saprophyticus and their antimicrobial sensitivity pattern in Young Adult Women. Bangladesh Journal of Medical Microbiology. 2011;5(1):21-5. [DOI:10.3329/bjmm.v5i1.15817] [Google Scholar]
4. Vickers AA, Chopra I, O'neill AJ. Intrinsic novobiocin resistance in Staphylococcus saprophyticus. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy. 2007;51(12):4484-5. [View at Publisher] [DOI:10.1128/AAC.00708-07] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
5. Kleine B, Gatermann S, Sakinc T. Genotypic and phenotypic variation among Staphylococcus saprophyticus from human and animal isolates. BMC research notes. 2010; 3(1):1-5. [View at Publisher] [DOI:10.1186/1756-0500-3-163] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
6. Al-Waeely FA, AL-khafaji JK, Al-Saadi ZH. CHARACTERIZATION OF VIRULENCE FACTORS OF STAPHYLOCOCUS SAPROPHYTICUS ISOLATED FROM WOMEN WITH CYSTITIS. 2015. [View at Publisher] [Google Scholar]
7. de Paiva-Santos W, de Sousa VS, Giambiagi-deMarval M. Occurrence of virulence-associated genes among Staphylococcus saprophyticus isolated from different sources. Microbial pathogenesis. 2018;119:9-11. [View at Publisher] [DOI:10.1016/j.micpath.2018.03.054] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
8. Hashemzadeh M, Dezfuli A, Nashibi R, Jahangirimehr F, Akbarian Z. Study of biofilm formation, structure and antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus saprophyticus strains causing urinary tract infection in women in Ahvaz, Iran. New Microbes and New Infections. 2021;39:100831. [View at Publisher] [DOI:10.1016/j.nmni.2020.100831] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
9. Ujmajuridze A, Chanishvili N, Goderdzishvili M, Leitner L, Mehnert U, Chkhotua A, et al. Adapted bacteriophages for treating urinary tract infections. Frontiers in microbiology. 2018;9:1832. [DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2018.01832] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
10. Ghebremedhin B, Layer F, Konig W, Konig B. Genetic classification and distinguishing of Staphylococcus species based on different partial gap, 16S rRNA, hsp60, rpoB, sodA, and tuf gene sequences. Journal of clinical microbiology. 2008;46(3):1019-25. [View at Publisher] [DOI:10.1128/JCM.02058-07] [Google Scholar]
11. Lo DS, Shieh HH, Barreira ER, Ragazzi SLB, Gilio AE. High frequency of Staphylococcus saprophyticus urinary tract infections among female adolescents. The Pediatric infectious disease journal. 2015;34(9):1023-5. [View at Publisher] [DOI:10.1097/INF.0000000000000780] [Google Scholar]
12. Jancel T, Dudas V. Management of uncomplicated urinary tract infections. Western journal of medicine. 2002;176(1):51. [DOI:10.1136/ewjm.176.1.51] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
13. Chen L-K, Kuo S-C, Chang K-C, Cheng C-C, Yu P-Y, Chang C-H, et al. Clinical antibiotic-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strains with higher susceptibility to environmental phages than antibiotic-sensitive strains. Scientific reports. 2017;7(1):1-10. [View at Publisher] [DOI:10.1038/s41598-017-06688-w] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
14. Bartani Z, Shokry E, Sadeghi M, Abdi H. The prevalence of bacterial sensitivity and resistance in non-complicated urinary tract infection in outpatient with urinary tract infection in Kermanshah city. Medical Science. 2018;22(89):78-84. [View at Publisher] [Google Scholar]
15. Flores-Mireles AL, Walker JN, Caparon M, Hultgren SJ. Urinary tract infections: epidemiology, mechanisms of infection and treatment options. Nature reviews microbiology. 2015;13(5):269-84. [View at Publisher] [DOI:10.1038/nrmicro3432] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
16. Iliyasu M, Ezihe M, Bala K. Antibiogram pattern of staphylococcus saprophyticus associated with asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in bauchi metropolis. Nigerian Journal of Microbiology. 2015;28:2812-20.
17. Cox L, He C, Bevins J, Clemens JQ, Stoffel JT, Cameron AP. Gentamicin bladder instillations decrease symptomatic urinary tract infections in neurogenic bladder patients on intermittent catheterization. Canadian Urological Association Journal. 2017;11(9):E350. [DOI:10.5489/cuaj.4434] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
18. Sarvepalli VK, Patak NP, Kandati J, Pathapati RM, Buchineni M. Prevalence of uropathogens and their antibiogram in diabetic patients a cross sectional study. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci. 2015;4(11):226-35. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
19. Moue A, Aktaruzzaman S, Ferdous N, Karim MR, Khalil M, Das AK. Prevalence of urinary tract infection in both outpatient department and in patient department at a medical college setting of Bangladesh. Int J Biosci. 2015;7(5):146-52. [DOI:10.12692/ijb/7.5.146-152] [Google Scholar]
20. Perry CM, Jarvis B. Linezolid: a review of its use in the management of serious gram-positive infections. Drugs. 2001; 61(4): 525-51. [View at Publisher] [DOI:10.2165/00003495-200161040-00008] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
21. Khoshbakht R, Salimi A, SHIRZAD AH, Keshavarzi H. Antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial strains isolated from urinary tract infections in Karaj, Iran. Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology. 2013; 6(1): 86-90. [DOI:10.5812/jjm.4830] [Google Scholar]
22. Motamedifar M, Zamani K, Hassanzadeh Y, Pashoutan S. Bacterial etiologies and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of urinary tract infections at the pediatric ward of Dastgheib hospital, Shiraz, Iran: A three-year study (2009-2011). Archives of Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2016;11(2). [View at Publisher] [DOI:10.5812/archcid.28973] [Google Scholar]
23. Naderi M, Gholipour N, Mashjoor S, Moradi N, Samaei NM. Spectrum of Bacterial Resistance associated with Urinary Tract Infections from Clinical case in Northern of Iran. Advances in Bioresearch. 2018;9(1). [View at Publisher] [Google Scholar]
24. Yazdi M, Bouzari M, Ghaemi EA. Isolation and characterization of a potentially novel Siphoviridae phage (vB_SsapS-104) with lytic activity against Staphylococcus saprophyticus isolated from urinary tract infection. Folia microbiologica. 2019; 64(3): 283-94. [View at Publisher] [DOI:10.1007/s12223-018-0653-9] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
25. Bagińska N, Cieślik M, Górski A, Jończyk-Matysiak E. The Role of Antibiotic Resistant A. baumannii in the Pathogenesis of Urinary Tract Infection and the Potential of Its Treatment with the Use of Bacteriophage Therapy. Antibiotics. 2021;10(3):281. [View at Publisher] [DOI:10.3390/antibiotics10030281] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
26. Vincent CR, Thomas TL, Reyes L, White CL, Canales BK, Brown MB. Symptoms and risk factors associated with first urinary tract infection in college age women: a prospective cohort study. The Journal of urology. 2013;189(3):904-10. [View at Publisher] [DOI:10.1016/j.juro.2012.09.087] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
27. Vasudevan R. Urinary tract infection: an overview of the infection and the associated risk factors. J Microbiol Exp. 2014;1(2):00008. [DOI:10.15406/jmen.2014.01.00008] [Google Scholar]
28. Adeghate J, Juhász E, Pongrácz J, Rimanóczy É, Kristóf K. Does Staphylococcus saprophyticus cause acute cystitis only in young females, or is there more to the story? A one-year comprehensive study done in Budapest, Hungary. Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica. 2016;63(1):57-67. [View at Publisher] [DOI:10.1556/030.63.2016.1.4] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:
CAPTCHA

Send email to the article author


Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2007 All Rights Reserved | Medical Laboratory Journal

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.