Volume 17, Issue 2 (Mar-Apr 2023)                   mljgoums 2023, 17(2): 1-6 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Parveen S, Deepak G V, Boddapati A. Hematological Alterations in Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax Malaria Patients Admitted to a Tertiary Care HospitalHospital. mljgoums 2023; 17 (2) :1-6
URL: http://mlj.goums.ac.ir/article-1-1455-en.html
1- Department of Pathology, Prathima Institute of Medical Sciences, Nagunur, Karimnagar, Telangana, India
2- Department of Pathology, Prathima Institute of Medical Sciences, Nagunur, Karimnagar, Telangana, India , research.nmch@rediffmail.com
Abstract:   (1216 Views)
Background and objectives: Malaria causes a wide spectrum of hematological and clinical manifestations. This study aimed to identify the alterations in the clinical and hematological parameters in patients infected with Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium falciparum, and mixed species.
Methods: The study included 126 smear-positive malaria cases, and various hematological parameters were studied.
Results: The frequency of P. vivax, P. falciparum, and mixed species was 53.9%, 36.5%, and 9.6%, respectively. Anemia (hemoglobin <11 gm%) was seen in 79.3% of the cases, and severe anemia (hemoglobin <5g%) was detected in 27.7% of the cases. A decrease in red blood cell count was observed in 67% of P. falciparum and 47% cases of P. vivax cases. Increased red cell distribution width and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were seen in 81% and 78% of the cases, respectively. Leukocytosis and leucopenia were detected in 15% and 16% of all malaria cases, respectively. Thrombocytopenia was associated with 78% of cases infected with P. vivax. The degree of anemia was correlated with the parasite load, and the degree of parasitemia was correlated with the extent of thrombocytopenia. There were also significant variations in the mean corpuscular volume, hematocrit, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and platelet counts among malarial species (p<0.05).
Conclusion: Malaria is frequently associated with anemia, thrombocytopenia, and leukopenia. Thrombocytopenia is mostly associated with P. vivax infection. On contrary, leukopenia is more prevalent in P. falciparum, followed by P. vivax and mixed parasitemia.
Full-Text [PDF 420 kb]   (447 Downloads) |   |   Full-Text (HTML)  (439 Views)  
Research Article: Research Article | Subject: Parasitology
Received: 2021/10/27 | Accepted: 2022/05/14 | Published: 2023/03/14 | ePublished: 2023/03/14

References
1. Bogale AL, Kassa HB, Ali JH. Patients' perception and satisfaction on quality of laboratory malaria diagnostic service in Amhara Regional State, North West Ethiopia. Malar J. 2015;14:241. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
2. Gupta RK, Raina SK, Shora TN, Jan R, Sharma R, Hussain S. A household survey to assess community knowledge, attitude and practices on malaria in a rural population of Northern India. J Family Med Prim Care. 2016; 5(1): 101-7. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
3. Bashawri LAM, Mandil AA, Bahnassy AA, Ahmed MA. Malaria:Haematological Aspects. Annals of Saudi Medicine. 2002;22:372-7. [DOI:10.5144/0256-4947.2002.372] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
4. Gilles HM. Historical outline In: Gilles HM, Warrell DA, editors. Essential Malariology. 4th Ed.London:Arnold. 2002; 1-7. [View at Publisher]
5. Schlagenhauf P. Malaria: from prehistory to present. Infect Dis Clin N Am. 2004; 18: 189-205 [View at Publisher] [DOI:10.1016/j.idc.2004.01.002] [Google Scholar]
6. Oleinikov AV. Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum Proteins on the Surface of Infected Erythrocytes as Targets for Novel Drug Discovery. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2022 Jan;87(Suppl 1): S192-S177. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
7. Sinden RE, Gilles HM. The Malaria Parasite In:Gilles HM, Warrel DA, editors. Essential Malariology. 4th Ed. London: Arnold. 2002; 8-33. [View at Publisher]
8. Anton L, Cobb DW, Ho CM. Structural parasitology of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Trends in Biochemical Sciences. 2022;47(2):149-59. [View at Publisher] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
9. Miller LH, Baruch DI, Marsh K, Doumbo OK The pathogenic basis of malaria. Nature. 2002; 415: 673-79. [View at Publisher] [DOI:10.1038/415673a] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
10. Maitland K, Bejon P, Newton CR. Malaria. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2003; 16(5): 389-95. [DOI:10.1097/00001432-200310000-00004] [PubMed]
11. Ho M, White NJ .Molecular mechanisms of cytoadherence in malaria. Am J Physiol Society. 1999; 276: 1231-42. [View at Publisher] [DOI:10.1152/ajpcell.1999.276.6.C1231] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
12. Weatherall DJ, Miller LH, Baruch DI, Marsh K, Doumbo OK,P Seuals CC, Roberts DJ et al. Malaria and the Red Cell. Hematology. 2002: 35-57 [View at Publisher] [DOI:10.1182/asheducation-2002.1.35] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
13. Dacie JU, Lewis SM.In: Practical Haematology. 8 th ed. London:Churchill [View at Publisher]
14. Jairajpuri Z, Rana S, Hassan M, Nabi F, Jetley S. An Analysis of Hematological Parameters as a Diagnostic test for Malaria in Patients with Acute Febrile Illness: An Institutional Experience. Oman Medical Journal. 2014;29(1):12-17. [DOI:10.5001/omj.2014.04] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
15. Bhawna S, Bharti A, Yogesh K, Reena A. Parasitemia and Hematological Alterations in Malaria: A Study from the Highly Affected Zones. Iranian Journal of Pathology. 2013; 8(1): 1-8. [View at Publisher] [Google Scholar]
16. Patel A, Jain S, Patel B, Modi B. Hematological Changes in P.Falciparum & P.Vivax Malaria. Natl J Med Res. 2013; 3(2): 130-133 [View at Publisher] [Google Scholar]
17. Sharma SK, Das RK, Das BK, Das PK. Haematological and coagulation profile in acute falciparum malaria. J Assoc Physicians India. 1992; 40: 581-3 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
18. Perrin LH, Mackey LJ, Miescher PA. The hematology of malaria in man. Sem Hematol. 1982; 19: 70-81. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
19. Clark IA, Chaudhri G. Tumour necrosis factor may contribute to the anemia of malaria by causing dyserythropoiesis and erythrophagoytosis. Brit J Haematol 1988;70:99-103. [View at Publisher] [DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2141.1988.tb02440.x] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
20. Angus BJ, Chotivanich K, Silamut K, Ruangveerayuth R,Hardeman MR. Red blood cell deformability as a predictor ofanemia in severe Falciparum malaria. AmJTropMedHyg1999;60:733-7 [View at Publisher] [DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.1999.60.733] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
21. Chotivanich K, et al. Parasite multiplication potential and the severity of falciparum malaria.J Infect Dis. 2000;181:1206-1209. [View at Publisher] [DOI:10.1086/315353] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
22. Miller LH, Mason SJ, Clyde DF, McGinniss MH. The resistance factor to Plasmodium vivax in blacks. The Duffy-blood-group genotype, FyFy. N Engl J Med.1976; 295: 302-304 [View at Publisher] [DOI:10.1056/NEJM197608052950602] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
23. Kotepui M, Piwkham D, PhunPhuech B, Phiwklam N, Chupeerach C, Duangmano S. Effects of Malaria Parasite Density on Blood Cell Parameters. PLOS ONE. 2015;10(3):e0121057 [View at Publisher] [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0121057] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
24. Kotepui M, Phunphuech B, Phiwklam N, Chupeerach C, Duangmano S. Effect of malarial infection on haematological parameters in population near Thailand-Myanmar border. Malar J. 2014 ;13:218. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
25. Koltas IS, Demirhindi H, Hazar S, Ozcan K. Supportive presumptive diagnosis of Plasmodium vivax malaria. Thrombocytopenia and red cell distribution width. Saudi Med J. 2007; 28(4): 535-539. [View at Publisher] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
26. Haroon H, Fazel P, Naeem M, Mobin A, Naqvi A, Makki K. Hide and seek: hematological aspects of malaria - a developing country perspective. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2013;7(3):273-9. [View at Publisher] [DOI:10.3855/jidc.2332] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
27. Skudowitz RB, Katz J, Lurie A, Levin A, Metz J. Mechanism of thrombocytopenia in malignant tertian malaria. British Medical Journal. 1973; 2: 515-517 [View at Publisher] [DOI:10.1136/bmj.2.5865.515] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
28. Kelton JG, et al. Immune Mediated Thrombocytopenia of Malaria. J Clin Invest. 1983;71:832-836 [View at Publisher] [DOI:10.1172/JCI110836] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
29. Grau GE, Piguet PF, Gretener D, Vesin C, Lambert PH. Immunopathology of thrombocytopenia in experimental malaria. Immunology. 1988; 65(4): 501-6. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
30. Ladhani S, Lowe B, Cole AO, Kowuondo K, Newton RJC, et al. Changes in white blood cells and platelets in children with falciparum malaria: relationship to disease outcome. Brit J Haematol. 2002;119:839-47. [View at Publisher] [DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2141.2002.03904.x] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
31. Horstmann RD, Dietrich M, Bienzle U, Rasche H. Malaria-induced thrombocytopenia. Blut. 1981;42(3):157-64. [View at Publisher] [DOI:10.1007/BF01026385] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:
CAPTCHA

Send email to the article author


Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2007 All Rights Reserved | Medical Laboratory Journal

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.