Volume 15, Issue 6 (Special issue (Nov-Dec) 2021)                   mljgoums 2021, 15(6): 17-22 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Inyang-Etoh P, Etefia E, Chime C, Ejezie G. Prevalence of Haemoparasites among Blood Donors in Calabar, Nigeria. mljgoums. 2021; 15 (6) :17-22
URL: http://mlj.goums.ac.ir/article-1-1405-en.html
1- Department of Medical Laboratory Science, University of Calabar, Nigeria
2- Department of Medical Laboratory Science, University of Calabar, Nigeria , etefiaetefia1@gmail.com
Abstract:   (126 Views)
Background and objectives: Voluntary blood donation is the main source of blood and its components globally. Blood transfusion is essential for management of various diseases but remains as one of the most important causes of disease transmission. In this study, we screened donated blood samplesfor haemoparasites in the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Nigeria.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 200 blood samples taken from donors who had been asymptomatic for haemoparasite infections. The blood samples were analyzed microscopically for the presence of malaria parasites using Giemsa stained thin smears and thick smears. The Knott concentration technique was used to detect microfilaria. To evaluate presence of trypanosomes, triple centrifugation was carried out and the resulting sediment was used to prepare wet and smears stained with 10% Giemsa solution.
Results: The prevalence of malaria parasites, microfilaria, and trypanosome was 38% (76/200), 5% (10/200), and nil (0/200), respectively. The prevalence of malaria infection was highest among females, individuals aged 18–25 years and those with O+ blood type. Most donors had malaria parasite density of 200–4000/µl. Microfilaria was only found in males and more common among subjects between 26 and 33 years of age as well as those with O+ blood type.
Conclusion: The findings revealed the presence of malaria and microfilaria infections and the absence of trypanosomes among blood donors in Calabar, Nigeria. This accentuates the need to screen all blood donors for haemoparasites in order to reduce the spread of the parasites and minimize its effects on the recipients.
Full-Text [PDF 587 kb]   (62 Downloads) |   |   Full-Text (HTML)  (36 Views)  
Research Article: Research Article | Subject: Parasitology
Received: 2021/07/19 | Accepted: 2021/10/3 | Published: 2021/10/18 | ePublished: 2021/10/18

References
1. Nwogoh B, Aigberadion U, Nwannadi AI. Knowledge, attitude and practice of voluntary blood donation among healthcare workers at the university of Benin teaching hospital, Benin City. Nigeria. J Blood Transfus. 2013; 2013:797830. [View at Publisher] [DOI:10.1155/2013/797830] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
2. World Health Organization (WHO). WHO AFRO: blood safety, 2013. [View at Publisher]
3. William EF, Jarreau PC, Zitzmann MB, Pictocco C. Transfusion transmitted disease. In: Harmening DM, eds. Modern blood banking and transfusion practice. 6th ed. Philadelphia: Davis Plus. 2012; 403.
4. Okocha EC, Ibeh CC, Ele PU, Ibeh NC. The prevalence of malaria parasitaemia in blood donors in a Nigerian teaching hospital. J Vector Borne Dis. 2005; 42(1): 21-4. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
5. Verra F, Angheben A, Martello E, Giorli G, Perandin F, Bisoffi Z. A systematic review of transfusion-transmitted malaria in non-endemic areas. Malaria Journal. 2018; 17(1): 36. [View at Publisher] [DOI:10.1186/s12936-018-2181-0] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
6. Bisetegen FS, Bekele FB, Ageru TA, Wada FW. Transfusion-transmissible infections among voluntary blood donors at WolaitaSodo University Teaching Referral Hospital, South Ethiopia. Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol. 2016; 2016:8254343. [DOI:10.1155/2016/8254343] [Google Scholar]
7. Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). Eligibility for Blood Donation: Recommendations for Education and Selection of Prospective Blood Donors Washington, D.C.: PAHO, 2009.
8. Feldman BV, Zinkl JG, Jain NC, Schalm OW. Veterinary Hematology. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.
9. Springer A, Fichtel C, Calvignac-Spencer S, Leendertz FH, Kappeler, PM. Hemoparasites in a wild primate: Infection patterns suggest interaction of Plasmodium and Babesiain a lemur species. International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife. 2015;4(3):385-95. [View at Publisher] [DOI:10.1016/j.ijppaw.2015.10.006] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
10. Hasan SB. Blood Donors in a WHO Claimed Region of Egypt, Fayoum Governorate. Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases. 2017;9:e2017065. [DOI:10.4084/mjhid.2017.065]
11. World Health Organization (WHO). Blood safety and availability. Safe and appropriate use, 2016. [View at Publisher]
12. Cheesbrough M. District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries, Part 1. New York: Cambridge University Press; 2014.
13. World Health Organization (WHO). Malaria parasite counting, malaria microscopy standard operating procedure, 2016. [View at Publisher] [Google Scholar]
14. Warhurst D, Williams J. Laboratory diagnosis of malaria. Journal of Clinical Pathology 1996:49. [View at Publisher] [DOI:10.1136/jcp.49.7.533]
15. Arora DR, Arora BB. Textbook of Medical Parasitology. 4th ed. New Delhi: CBS Publisher, 2014. [View at Publisher]
16. World Health Organization (WHO). World Malaria day report. Eliminating-Malaria Push. Malaria Journal. 2016 15:303.
17. Morona D, Msemwa B, Zinga MM, et al. Asymptomatic malaria and associated factors among blood donors in Mwanza, Tanzania. Tanzania Journal of Health Research. 2017;19:2. [View at Publisher] [DOI:10.4314/thrb.v19i2.4] [Google Scholar]
18. Owusu-Ofori AK, Bates I. Impact of inconsistent policies for transfusion-transmitted malaria on clinical practice in Ghana. PLoS One. 2012; 7(3):e34201. [View at Publisher] [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0034201] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
19. Agboola T, Ajayi M, Adeleke M, Gyang P. Prevalence of malaria parasite among blood donors in Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos Nigeria. Annals of Biological Research. 2010; 1:72-5. [View at Publisher] [Google Scholar]
20. Olawumi HO, Fadeyi A, Babatunde SK, et al. Malaria parasitaemia among blood donors in Ilorin, Nigeria. AJID. 2015; 9(1):10-3. [View at Publisher] [DOI:10.4314/ajid.v9i1.3] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
21. Oche AO, Aminu M. The prevalence of malarial parasitaemia among blood donors in Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Shika, Zaria, Nigeria. NJM. 2012;21(4):445-9. [View at Publisher] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
22. Ojo-Bola T, Omisakin CT, Esan AJ, Owoseni MF. Prevalence of filaria worm among prospective blood donors attending a tertiary health institution in Southwest Nigeria. IOSR-JDMS. 2014; 13(1): 84-7 [View at Publisher] [DOI:10.9790/0853-13158487] [Google Scholar]
23. Mabayoje VO, Adeyeba AO, Taiwo SS, Muhibi MA, Ojurongbe O. Prevalence of filariasis among prospective blood donors at LadokeAkintola University Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Health and Biomedical Sciences. 2016; 5(2): 71-3. [View at Publisher] [DOI:10.4314/njhbs.v5i2.11602] [Google Scholar]
24. Alli J, Okonko I, Abraham O, Kolade A, Ogunjobi P, Salako A, Ojezele M, Nwanze J: A serosurvey of Blood Parasites (Plasmodium, Microfilaria, HIV, HBsAG, HCV Antibodies) in Prospective Nigerian Blood Donors. RJMS. 2010; 4: 255-75. [View at Publisher] [DOI:10.3923/rjmsci.2010.255.275] [Google Scholar]
25. Ike ME, Onuoha EC, Yohanna AJ, Dakul A,Damen GJ, Hallie EF, et al. Detection of Haemoparasites of Blood Donors in 9 Locations in and Around Plateau State, Nigeria. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare. 2019; 9: 22. [View at Publisher] [DOI] [Google Scholar]
26. Ike ME, Yohanna JA, Dakul DA. Haemoparasites of volunteer blood donors with National Blood Transfusion Service (NBTS) in Jos, Plateau State. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology. 2017; 38(2): 288-291. [View at Publisher] [DOI:10.4314/njpar.v38i2.29] [Google Scholar]
27. Ekwunife CA, Ozumba NA, Eneanya CI, Nwaorgu OC. Malaria infection among blood donors in Onitsha urban, Southeast Nigeria. SLJBR. 2011;3(1):21-6. [View at Publisher] [DOI:10.4314/sljbr.v3i1.66647] [Google Scholar]
28. Kalu KM, Obasi NA, Nduka FO, Otuchristian G. A comparative study of the prevalence of malaria in Aba and Umuahia Urban areas of Abia state, Nigeria. J Parasitol Res. 2012; 7(1): 17-24. [View at Publisher] [DOI:10.3923/jp.2012.17.24]
29. Otajevwo FD. Prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and its association with ABO blood grouping among students of igbinedion university Okada, Nigeria. Br J Med Res. 2013; 3(4): 1164-77. [View at Publisher] [DOI:10.9734/BJMMR/2013/1745] [Google Scholar]
30. Esan AJ, Omisakin CT, Titilayo OE, Fasakin KA. Gender difference on stress induced by malaria parasite infection and effect of anti-malaria drug on stress index. Am J Biomed Res. 2014;2(3):42-46. [View at Publisher] [DOI:10.12691/ajbr-2-3-1]
31. Ukpai OM, AjokuEI. The prevalence of malaria in Okigwe and Owerri areas of Imo state. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology. 2001; 22(1):43-8. [View at Publisher] [DOI:10.4314/njpar.v22i1.37757]
32. Uneke CJ. Plasmodium falciparum malaria and ABO blood group: is there any relationship? Parasitol. Res. 2007;100(4):759-765. [View at Publisher] [DOI:10.1007/s00436-006-0342-5] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
33. Singh N, Shukla MM, Uniyal VP, Sharma VP. ABO blood groups among malaria cases from district Mandla, Madhya Pradesh. Indian J Malariol. 1995; 32(2):59-63. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
34. Akhigbe RE, Ige SF, AdegunlolaGJ, Adewumi MO, Azeez MO. Malaria, haemoglobin genotypes and ABO Blood groups in Ogbomoso Nigeria. Int J Trop Med. 2011; 6(4): 73-6. [View at Publisher] [DOI]
35. Ojo-bola T, Omisakin CT, Esan AJ, Owoseni MF. Prevalence of Filaria worm among prospective blood donors attending a tertiary health institution in southwest Nigeria. IOSR-JDMS, 2014; 13(1), 84-87 [View at Publisher] [DOI:10.9790/0853-13158487] [Google Scholar]
36. Obadiah ES, Sambo ED, Alhaji MA, et al. Rapid epidemiological assessment of lymphatic filariasis in Northern Taraba focus, Nigeria. IJIDT. 2018; 3(1) 6-12. [View at Publisher] [DOI:10.11648/j.ijidt.20180301.12] [Google Scholar]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:
CAPTCHA

Send email to the article author


Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2007 All Rights Reserved | Medical Laboratory Journal

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.