Volume 14, Issue 2 (Mar-Apr 2020)                   mljgoums 2020, 14(2): 1-8 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

zahedi avval F, Moammeri Salahshooh M, sadabadi F ‎. Lipoprotein(a) and its Clinical Importance. mljgoums. 2020; 14 (2) :1-8
URL: http://mlj.goums.ac.ir/article-1-1165-en.html
1- Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, ‎IRAN‎ , Zahediaf@mums.ac.ir
2- Department of Modern Sciences‏ & ‏Technologies‏ ‏,‏Faculty of Medicine. Mashhad University of Medical Sciences‏ ‏,‏Mashhad, Iran
Abstract:   (1213 Views)
ABSTRACT
           Reports have shown that lipoprotein (Lp)(a) can serve as an indicator of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Several cardiovascular disease risk factors including age, ethnicity and type 2 diabetes mellitus have been linked to Lp(a) metabolism. Given the structural similarity between Lp(a) and plasminogen, there may be a relationship between Lp(a) level and thrombosis and atherogenesis.
In this review, we summarize the latest data about Lp(a) and related conditions on the PubMed database using the following keywords: “Lp(a) and diseases” and “Lp(a) and racial groups”. All available information was extracted and categorized according to the purpose of this study. In conclusion, evidence suggest that increased level of Lp(a) results in coronary artery disease and increases the risk of ischemic stroke. Lack of Lp(a) has no adverse effect on human health. Moreover, Lp(a) can be effective in wound healing as it degrades apolipoprotein(a) products which might have anti-tumor and anti-angiogenetic effects.
           Keywords: Lipoprotein(a), Atherosclerosis, Apo(a).
Full-Text [PDF 719 kb]   (119 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Systematic Review | Subject: Biochemistry
Received: 2018/12/29 | Accepted: 2019/07/16 | Published: 2020/03/12 | ePublished: 2020/03/12

References
1. McCormick SP. Lipoprotein(a): Biology and Clinical Importance.ClinBiochem Rev. 2004; 25(1): 69-80.
2. Maranhão RC, Carvalho PO, Strunz CC, PileggiF.Lipoprotein (a): structure, pathophysiology and clinical implications.Arq Bras Cardiol. 2014; 103(1): 76-84.DOI:10.5935/abc.20140101 [DOI:10.5935/abc.20140101]
3. Berg K. A new serum type system in man--the LP system.ActaPatholMicrobiol Scand. 1963; 59: 369-82.DOI:10.1111/j.1699-0463.1963.tb01808.x [DOI:10.1111/j.1699-0463.1963.tb01808.x]
4. Gaubatz JW, Chari MV, Nava ML, Guyton JR, Morrisett JD. Isolation and characterization of the two major apoproteins in human lipoprotein [a]. J Lipid Res. 1987; 28(1): 69-79.PMID: 2951469.
5. McLean JW, Tomlinson JE, Kuang WJ, Eaton DL, Chen EY, Fless GM, et al. cDNA sequence of human apolipoprotein(a) is homologous to plasminogen. Nature. 1987; 330(6144):132-7. DOI: 10.1038/330132a0. [DOI:10.1038/330132a0]
6. Utermann G. The mysteries of lipoprotein(a). Science. 1989; 246(4932): 904-10.DOI: 10.1126/science.2530631. [DOI:10.1126/science.2530631]
7. Scanu AM, Kurschinski D, Conn M, Garcia M. Important limiting features of the precipitation method in estimating LDL cholesterol: interference by IDL and Lp(a). Atherosclerosis.1988; 8: 574a.
8. Albers JJ, Adolphson JL, Hazzard WR. Radioimmunoassay of human plasma Lp(a) lipoprotein. J Lipid Res. 1977; 18(3): 331-8.PMID: 405443.
9. Jenner JL, Ordovas JM, Lamon-Fava S, Schaefer MM, Wilson PW, Castelli WP, et al. Effects of age, sex, and menopausal status on plasma lipoprotein(a) levels. The Framingham Offspring Study. Circulation. 1993; 87(4): 1135-41.DOI:10.1161/01.cir.87.4.1135. [DOI:10.1161/01.CIR.87.4.1135]
10. White AL, Lanford RE. Cell surface assembly of lipoproteine(a) in primary cultures of baboon hepatocytes. J Biol Chem. 1994; 269(46): 28716-23PMID: 7961823.
11. Krempler F, Kostner G, Bolzano K, Sandhofer F. Lipoprotein (a) is not a metabolic product of other lipoproteins containing apolipoproteinB.BiochimBiophysActa. 1979; 575(1): 63-70. DOI:10.1016/0005-2760(79)90131-0. [DOI:10.1016/0005-2760(79)90131-0]
12. Bartens W, Rader DJ, Talley G, Brewer HB Jr. Decreased plasma levels of lipoprotein(a) in patients with hypertriglyceridemia. Atherosclerosis. 1994; 108(2): 149-57. DOI:10.1016/0021-9150(94)90109-0. [DOI:10.1016/0021-9150(94)90109-0]
13. Santos RD, Vinagre C, Maranhão RC. Lipoprotein lipase does not affect lipoprotein (a) levels in normotriglyceridemic patients. Int J Cardiol. 1995; 50(1): 79-81.DOI:10.1016/0167-5273(95)02345-w. [DOI:10.1016/0167-5273(95)02345-W]
14. Armstrong VW, Harrach B, Robenek H, Helmhold M, Walli AK, Slidel D. Heterogeneity of human lipoprotein Lp[a]: cytochemical and biochemical studies on the interaction of two Lp[a] species with the LDL receptor. J Lipid Res. 1990; 31(3): 429-41.
15. Argraves KM, Kozarsky KF, Fallon JT, Harpel PC, Strickland DK. The atherogenic lipoprotein Lp(a) is internalized and degraded in a process mediated by the VLDL receptor. J Clin Invest. 1997; 100(9): 2170-81. DOI: 10.1172/JCI119753. [DOI:10.1172/JCI119753]
16. Wiklund O, Angelin B, Olofsson SO, Eriksson M, Fager G, Berglund L, et al. Apolipoprotein(a) and ischaemic heart disease in familial hypercholesterolaemia. Lancet. 1990; 335(8702): 1360-3.DOI:10.1016/0140-6736(90)91242-3. [DOI:10.1016/0140-6736(90)91242-3]
17. Crawford DC, Peng Z, Cheng JF, Boffelli D, Ahearn M, Nguyen D, et al. LPA and PLG sequence variation and kringle IV-2 copy number in two populations. Hum Hered. 2008; 66(4): 199-209. DOI: 10.1159/000143403. [DOI:10.1159/000143403]
18. Boerwinkle E, Leffert CC, Lin J, Lackner C, Chiesa G, Hobbs HH. Apolipoprotein(a) gene accounts for greater than 90% of the variation in plasma lipoprotein(a) concentrations. J Clin Invest. 1992; 90(1): 52-60. DOI: 10.1172/JCI115855. [DOI:10.1172/JCI115855]
19. Sandholzer C, Hallman DM, Saha N, Sigurdsson G, Lackner C, Csaszar A, et al. Effects of the apolipoprotein(a) size polymorphism on the lipoprotein(a) concentration in 7 ethnic groups. Hum Genet. 1991; 86(6): 607-14.DOI:10.1007/bf00201550. [DOI:10.1007/BF00201550]
20. Islam S, Gutin B, Smith C, Treiber F, Kamboh MI. Association of apolipoprotein(a) phenotypes in children with family history of premature coronary artery disease.ArteriosclerThromb. 1994; 14(10): 1609-16. [DOI:10.1161/01.ATV.14.10.1609]
21. Moliterno DJ, Jokinen EV, Miserez AR, Lange RA, Willard JE, Boerwinkle E, et al. No association between plasma lipoprotein(a) concentrations and the presence or absence of coronary atherosclerosis in Afican - American.ArteriosclerThrombVascBiol 1995; 15(7): 850-5.DOI:10.1161/01.atv.15.7.850. [DOI:10.1161/01.ATV.15.7.850]
22. Maeda S, Abe A, Seishima M, Makino K, Noma A, Kawade M. Transient changes of serum lipoprotein(a) as an acute phase protein. Atherosclerosis. 1989; 78(2-3): 145-50.DOI:10.1016/0021-9150(89)90218-9. [DOI:10.1016/0021-9150(89)90218-9]
23. Ornek E, Murat S, Duran M, Turfan M, Kurtul A, Demircelik MB, et al. The relationship between lipoprotein(a) and coronary artery disease, as well as its variable nature following myocardial infarction. Clin Invest Med. 2011; 34(1): E14-20. DOI:10.25011/cim.v34i1.14908. [DOI:10.25011/cim.v34i1.14908]
24. Wang J, Hu B, Kong L, Cai H, Zhang C. Native, oxidized lipoprotein(a) and lipoprotein(a) immune complex in patients with active and inactive rheumatoid arthritis: plasma concentrations and relationship to inflammation.ClinChimActa. 2008; 390(1-2): 67-71. DOI: 10.1016/j.cca.2007.12.015. [DOI:10.1016/j.cca.2007.12.015]
25. Borba EF, Santos RD, Bonfa E, Vinagre CG, Pileggi FJ, Cossermelli W, et al. Lipoprotein(a) levels in systemic lupus erythematosus. J Rheumatol. 1994; 21(2): 220-3.
26. Enkhmaa B, Anuurad E, Zhang W, Abbuthalha A, Li XD, Dotterweich W, et al. HIV disease activity as a modulator of lipoprotein(a) and allele-specific apolipoprotein(a) levels.ArteriosclerThrombVasc Biol. 2013; 33(2): 387-92. DOI: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.112.300125. [DOI:10.1161/ATVBAHA.112.300125]
27. Maranhão R, Santos RD, Furlaneto C, Graziosi P, Stolf N, Vinagre C, et al. Lipoprotein (a), apolipoproteins and the lipid profile late after heart transplantation.Arq Bras Cardiol. 1994;63(6):465-8.
28. De Lima JJ, Maranhão RC, Latrilha M da C, Diament J, Romão JE, Krieger EM, et al. Early elevation of lipoprotein(a) levels in chronic renal insufficiency. Ren Fail. 1997; 19(1): 145-54. [DOI:10.3109/08860229709026269]
29. Santos RD, Foronda A, Ramires JA, Maranhão RC. Levels of lipoprotein (a) in pulmonary arterial hypertension.Cardiol Young. 2001; 11(1): 25-9.DOI:10.1017/s1047951100012385. [DOI:10.1017/S1047951100012385]
30. Bruckert E, Davidoff P, Grimaldi A, Truffert J, Giral P, Doumith R, et al. Increased serum levels of lipoprotein(a) in diabetes mellitus and their reduction with glycemic control. JAMA. 1990; 263(1): 35-6.doi:10.1001/jama.1990.03440010033016. [DOI:10.1001/jama.1990.03440010033016]
31. Haffner SM, Morales PA, Stern MP, Gruber MK. Lp(a) concentrations in NIDDM. Diabetes. 1992; 41(10): 1267-72.PMID: 1397699 [DOI:10.2337/diab.41.10.1267]
32. Riches K, Porter KE. Lipoprotein(a): cellular effects and molecular mechanisms. Cholesterol. 2012; 2012: 923289.http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/923289 [DOI:10.1155/2012/923289]
33. Ramharack R, Barkalow D, Spahr MA. Dominant negative effect of TGF-beta1 and TNF-alpha on basal and IL-6-induced lipoprotein(a) and apolipoprotein(a) mRNA expression in primary monkey hepatocyte cultures.ArteriosclerThrombVasc Biol. 1998; 18(6): 984-90.DOI:10.1161/01.atv.18.6.984. [DOI:10.1161/01.ATV.18.6.984]
34. Kostner GM, Avogaro P, Cazzolato G, Marth E, Bittolo-Bon G, Qunici GB. Lipoprotein Lp(a) and the risk for myocardial infarction. Atherosclerosis. 1981; 38(1-2): 51-61. DOI:10.1016/0021-9150(81)90103-9. [DOI:10.1016/0021-9150(81)90103-9]
35. Murai A, Miyahara T, Fujimoto N, Matsuda M, Kameyama M. Lp(a) lipoprotein as a risk factor for coronary heart disease and cerebral infarction. Atherosclerosis. 1986; 59(2): 199-204.DOI:10.1016/0021-9150(86)90048-1. [DOI:10.1016/0021-9150(86)90048-1]
36. Rhoads GG, Dahlen G, Berg K, Morton NE, Dannenberg AL. Lp(a) lipoprotein as a risk factor for myocardial infarction. JAMA. 1986; 256(18): 2540-4.PMID: 2945939. [DOI:10.1001/jama.256.18.2540]
37. Maranhäo R, Arie S, Vinagre CG, Guimarães JB, Strunz C, Pileggi F. Lipoprotein (a) plasma levels in normal subjects and patients with coronary disease confirmed by coronary cineangiography. Arq Bras Cardiol. 1991; 56(2): 121-5.PMID: 1831344.
38. Frohlich J, Dobiásová M, Adler L, Francis M. Gender differences in plasma levels of lipoprotein(a) in patients with angiographically proven coronary artery disease.Physiol Res. 2004; 53(5): 481-6.PMID: 15479125.
39. Virani SS, Brautbar A, Davis BC, Nambi V, Hoogeveen RC, Sharrett AR, et al. Associations between lipoprotein(a) levels and cardiovascular outcomes in black and white subjects: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Circulation. 2012; 125(2): 241-9. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.111.045120. [DOI:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.111.045120]
40. Sposito AC, Mansur AP, Maranhão RC, Martinez TR, Aldrighi JM, Ramires JA. Triglyceride and lipoprotein (a) are markers of coronary artery disease severity among postmenopausal women. Maturitas. 2001; 39(3): 203-8. DOI:10.1016/s0378-5122(01)00223-7. [DOI:10.1016/S0378-5122(01)00223-7]
41. Ridker PM, Hennekens CH, Stampfer MJ. A prospective study of lipoprotein(a) and the risk of myocardial infarction. JAMA.1993; 270: 2195-9.PMID: 8411602. [DOI:10.1001/jama.270.18.2195]
42. Wild SH, Fortmann SP, Marcovina SM. A prospective case-control study of lipoprotein(a) level and apo(a) size and risk of coronary heart disease in Stanford Five - City project.ArteriosclerThrombVascBiol. 1997; 17(2): 239-45.DOI:10.1161/01.atv.17.2.239. [DOI:10.1161/01.ATV.17.2.239]
43. Baños-González MA, Peña-Duque MA, Anglés-Cano E, Martinez-Rios MA, Bahena A, Valente-Acosta B, et al. Apo(a) phenotyping and long-term prognosis for coronary artery disease.ClinBiochem. 2010; 43(7-8): 640-4. doi: 10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2010.01.013. [DOI:10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2010.01.013]
44. Salonen EM, Jauhiainen M, Zardi L, Vaheri A, Ehnholm C. Lipoprotein(a) binds to fibronectin and has serine protease activity capable of cleaving it. EMBO J. 1989; 8(13): 4035-40. [DOI:10.1002/j.1460-2075.1989.tb08586.x]
45. Bihari-Varga M, Graber E, Rotheneder M, Zechner R, Kostner GM. Interaction of lipoproteinLp(a) and low density lipoprotein with glycosaminoglycans from human aorta.Arterosclerosis. 1988; 8: 851-7.doi: 10.1161/01.ATV.8.6.851. [DOI:10.1161/01.ATV.8.6.851]
46. Harpel PC, Gordon BR, Parker TS. Plasmin catalyzes binding of lipoprotein(a) to immobilized fibrinogen and fibrin.ProcNatlAcadSci USA.1989; 86: 3847-51. DOI:10.1073/pnas.86.10.3847. [DOI:10.1073/pnas.86.10.3847]
47. Malle E, Ibovnik A, Steinmetz A, Kostner GM, Sattler W. Identification of glycoprotein IIb as the lipoprotein(a) - binding protein on platelets. Lipoprotein(a) binding is independent of an Arginyl-Glycyl-Aspartate tripeptide located in apolipoprotein(a).ArteriosclerThromb. 1994; 14(3): 345-52. [DOI:10.1161/01.ATV.14.3.345]
48. Köchl S, Fresser F, Lobentanz E, Baier G, Utermann G. Novel interaction of apolipoprotein(a) with β2 glycoprotein I mediated by the kringle IV domain. Blood. 1997; 90(4): 1482-9.PMID: 9269765. [DOI:10.1182/blood.V90.4.1482.1482_1482_1489]
49. Niemeier A, Willnow T, Dieplinger H, Jacobsen C, Meyer N, Hilpert J, et al. Identification of megalin/gp330 as a receptor for lipoprotein(a) in vitro. ArteriosclerThrombVascBiol. 1999; 19(3): 552-61. [DOI:10.1161/01.ATV.19.3.552]
50. Vuckovic BA, Djeric MJ, Ilic TA, Canak VB, Kojic- DamjanovSLj, Zarkov MG, et al. Fibrinolytic parameters, lipid status and lipoprotein(a) in ischemic stroke patients. SrpArhCelokLek. 2010; 138 (Suppl 1): 12-7.DOI:10.2298/sarh10s1012v. [DOI:10.2298/SARH10S1012V]
51. Kokoglu E, Karaarslan I, Karaarslan HM, Baloglu H. Elevated serum Lp(a) levels in the early and advanced stages of breast cancer. Cancer BiochemBiophys. 1994; 14(2): 133-6.PMID: 7889493.
52. Yang HH, Chen XF, Hu W, Lv DQ, Ding WJ, Tang LI, Jiang JJ, Ye MH. Lipoprotein(a) level and its association with tumor stage in male patients with primary lung cancer.ClinChem Lab Med. 2009; 47(4): 452-7. doi: 10.1515/CCLM.2009.094. [DOI:10.1515/CCLM.2009.094]
53. Jiang J, Nisson-Ehle P, Xu N. Influence of liver cancer on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. Lipids Health Dis.2006; 5: 4. DOI: 10.1186/1476-511X-5-4. [DOI:10.1186/1476-511X-5-4]
54. Yu HK, Kim JS, Lee HJ, Ahn JH, Lee SK, Hong SW, Yoon Y. Suppression of colorectal cancer liver metastasis and extension of survival by expression of apo(a) kringles. Cancer Res. 2004; 64(19): 7092-8. DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-04-0364. [DOI:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-04-0364]
55. Lippi G, Franchini M, Salvagno GL, Guidi GC. Lipoprotein[a] and cancer: Anti-neoplastic effect besides its cardiovascular potency. Cancer Treatment Rev. 2007; 33(5): 427-36. [DOI:10.1016/j.ctrv.2007.02.006]
56. Hajjar KA, Nachman RL. The role of lipoprotein(a) in atherogenesis and thrombosis. Annual Rev Med. 1996; 47: 423-42. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.med.47.1.423. [DOI:10.1146/annurev.med.47.1.423]
57. Yano Y, Seishima M, Tokoro Y, Noma A. Stimulatory effects of lipoprotein(a) and low-density lipoprotein on human umbilical vein endothelial cell migration and proliferation are partially mediated by fibroblast growth factor- 2. BiochimBiophysActa. 1998; 1393: 26-34.DOI:10.1016/s0005-2760(98)00052-6. [DOI:10.1016/S0005-2760(98)00052-6]
58. Mario Uccello, Giulia Malaguarnera, Elisa M. Pelligra, Antonio Biondi, Francesco Basile, andMassimo Motta. Lipoprotein(a) as a potential marker of residual liver function in hepatocellular carcinoma. Indian J Med PaediatrOncol. 2011; 32(2): 71-75.doi: 10.4103/0971-5851.89775. [DOI:10.4103/0971-5851.89775]
59. Kostner K. Lipoprotein (a): Pathophysiology, metabolism, treatment options. Recent Advances and Research Updates. 2006;7(1):297-303.
60. Visioli F, Davalos A. Polyphenols and cardiovascular disease: a critical summary of the evidence. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2011;11(14):1186-90.DOI:10.2174/13895575111091186. [DOI:10.2174/13895575111091186]
61. Moammeri SM, Parizadeh SMR, Pasdar A, Karimian MS, Safarian H, Javandoost A, et al. The effect of curcumin (Curcuma longa L.) on circulating levels of adiponectin in patients with metabolic syndrome. Comparative Clinical Pathology. 2017;26(1):17-23. [DOI:10.1007/s00580-016-2339-5]
62. Javandoost A, Afshari A, Saberi-Karimian M, Sahebkar A, Safarian H, Moammeri SM, et al. The effects of curcumin and a modified curcumin formulation on serum Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein concentrations in patients with metabolic syndrome: A randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Avicenna journal of phytomedicine. 2018;8(4):330.DOI: 10.22038/ajp.2018.10348.
63. Saberi-Karimian M, Parizadeh SMR, Ghayour-Mobarhan M, Moammeri SM, Dizaji BF, Safarian H, et al. Evaluation of the effects of curcumin in patients with metabolic syndrome. Comparative Clinical Pathology. 2018;27(3):555-63. [DOI:10.1007/s00580-017-2624-y]
64. Forbes AC, Quek RGW, Deshpande S, Worthy G, Wolff R, Stirk L, et al.The relationship between Lp(a) and CVD outcomes: a systematic review. Lipids in Health and Disease. 2016; 15:95. DOI: 10.1186/s12944-016-0258-8. [DOI:10.1186/s12944-016-0258-8]
65. Hsieh J. Lipoprotein(a) in Vascular Disease, Cancer and Longevity.Chang Gung medical journal. 2011; 34(6): 555-64.

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:
CAPTCHA

Send email to the article author


© 2007 All Rights Reserved | Medical Laboratory Journal